1. Suppose that you are the HRD manager for a large state university. Your latest report shows that faculty and staff participation in your training and development programs is down over 30from last year. Staff levels have actually increased slightly since last year, and your budget and course offerings have remained the same. Select one of the motivation theories covered in Chapter Two. Describe the key points of this theory, and then use this theory to come up with three possible explanations (hypotheses) for why participation rates are down.2. Describe at least three major differences between a pedagogical and an andragogical approach to instruction. Assume that a group of your choosing was preparing for a diversity training session. Which of these principles (from either approach) would you recommend be incorporated in the training, and why?3. You have been asked to evaluate the effectiveness of an orientation program for a manufacturing firm with over 300 employees. First, describe the four types or levels of evaluation in Kirkpatrick’s model of evaluation. Then, provide examples of how you would go about collecting data on the effectiveness of the orientation program at all four levels of evaluation. [Note: This is a question on training evaluation; you do not need to go into any detail concerning the content of the orientation program.4. An organization of your choosing has asked you to help them design and run a basic skills/literacy training program for many of their employees. What approach would you take to this training? How would you evaluate the effectiveness of this program?5. Name and briefly describe the three stages in Feldman’s model of organizational socialization. Then, make two recommendations for how the ideas in this model can be used to design an effective orientation program for marketing professionals at a large cereal products manufacturer. For each recommendation, be sure to identify which element of the model your recommendations are based on, and explain how you have applied this element.