Discuss the Social Impacts after the fall of Constantinople

It can truly be asserted that the major social impacts or effects after the falling of the Constantinople was actually the reduction of the “Greek Christian population” to just a secondary status that was based in the Ottoman Empire. As a result, majority of the Christians were both teased and ragged in the streets. Indeed, the impacts of this reduction in population are still depicted today in the hatred in which the Greeks posed towards Turks (Drakopoulou, 2005). In addition to that, it is also prudent to note that the “fall of Constantinople” was also a great symbolization of the victory of the Islam over the Christendom. It is actually this freedom that made each and every Muslim to highly believe that God was not only on their side but also made them to strongly believe that they were the real chosen ones. Another significant social impact that arose as a result of the fall of the Constantinople was that it marked the shifting of the “Christianities Control” over the “Turkish Area” as well as the beginning or start of the Muslim Rule.

It is prudent to note that the “fall of Constantinople” also marked the start of the Modern Age in Christendom. Indeed, one of the most deafening symbols of a change in religion that was so significant at that time was the “Hagia Sophia church” that was ultimately changed or altered into a Mosque. This was done shortly after the fall and it was executed under the orders of Sultan Mehmed II. It is also worth noting that the “Fall of Constantinople” as well as the ultimate creation of the “Ottoman Empire” had immense impacts on the entire Europe that was Christian and this was unlike the “Muslim Ottoman Empire” (Drakopoulou, 2005). The extension of the Ottoman control was thus deemed as being a significant threat towards Western or Christina civilizations by Western Europeans.


Critically read and evaluate a scholarly article’s strengths, weaknesses, and contributions to the study field.

Learning how to critique a journal article has several benefits, including preparing you for publishing in the future and keeping you current on the literature in your field of study

Article: Melumad, S., & Meyer, R. (2020). Full Disclosure: How Smartphones Enhance Consumer SelfDisclosure. Journal of Marketing, 84(3), 28-45.


Executive Summary

Consumers are more self-disclosing while generating content on their smartphones than on a personal computer. Two properties contribute to individuals’ probability of self-disclosing on their smartphones. These properties are the comfort feelings associated with smartphones and the tendency of smartphones to narrow focus and attention on the task at hand due to their size. Smartphones’ size makes it difficult to generate content, thus little attention. The effect of smartphones on self-disclosure results in various marketing implications that different enterprises can leverage. The general purpose of the study is to identify the various implications of self-disclosure on smartphones and how they can be strategically leveraged. At the same time, the general area of study is based on the factors that contribute to self-disclosure among consumers on smartphones more than PC. The main problem addressed in the study is why consumers prefer smartphones on self-disclosure to PC despite their size and limited space for use. The main findings of the article are; that consumers tend to be more self-disclosing on their smartphones than on PCs, psychological comfort and the little attention to the task at hand are the main reasons for self-disclosing on smartphones, and consumers are least aware of their experiences on their smartphones which is psychologically comfortable.

Literature Review

The main themes of the literature were the role of modality in self-disclosure and how smartphones enhance self-disclosure relative to PCs. The theme of modality reveals that the different communication modalities affect individuals’ willingness to self-disclosure. Based on the studies, individuals were willing to self-disclosure more on computers than face-to-face. The social distance and isolation from an audience influence individuals to self-disclosure more on computer-mediated interfaces than on face-to-face. Smartphones and PCs have common features. However, they also have features that differentiate them; the users’ psychological comfort while using the devices and the extent of little attention due to size. Therefore, the second theme reveals that consumers tend to self-disclosure more on their smartphones than PCs due to the psychological comfort the smartphones offer, and the narrow attention one has to put in to ensure that they complete a task due to the smartphone’s small size.

The literature review applied to the study presents different evidence pieces that are crucial to the study. Based on the literature review, the degree of psychological comfort evokes self-disclosure. Smartphones provide a safe environment as individuals carry out intimate conversations and operations with their phones. And so, smartphones foster feelings of security, making it easy to converse and self-disclose. Also, smartphones tend to be at an arm’s reach, which increases consumers’ reliability while engaging in their activities. Smartphones evoke positive feelings of comfort and security, which facilitates self-disclosure. There were no gaps in the literature review.

Data Analysis

The most commonly used methodology is the quantitative methodology. The study focused on statistical data collection methods that resulted in quantitative results analyzed and presented. The quantitative methodology is appropriate since it presents information numerically, making it simple to understand. The data analysis approves the research questions as it presents the answers to the research questions in different ways.


The article is relevant to the field of knowledge as it enables enterprises to understand the implications of smartphones on their marketing activities. It provides insights on what enterprises should use to leverage and understand their consumers’ needs and preferences. The article’s strengths are that it based its discussions on different studies and results, statistical analysis information in an insightful manner, and provides detailed information. However, its weakness is that it focuses on one factor: positive feelings that smartphones provide, which results in more self-disclosure. It emphasizes more on this factor more and does not consider other factors. Can improvements on PCs increase self-disclosure among consumers PCs? My key point is that smartphones generate positive vibes of security and comfort, which enhance self-disclosure on smartphones. A safe and comfortable environment is crucial as it facilitates disclosure.


Melumad, S., & Meyer, R. (2020). Full Disclosure: How Smartphones Enhance Consumer SelfDisclosure. Journal of Marketing, 84(3), 28-45.

Rose Gardener Disease


The rose gardener disease, also known as Sporotrichosis, is an infection caused by a fungus called Sporothrix 1. The fungus is found within the environment since it lives within the soil and plant matter such as rose bushes, wood, and hay. Sporothrix is a single genus that diversifies genetically, ecologically, and biologically.  It is a dimorphic fungus as it exists in the hyphal and yeast form. The hyphal form occurs in the environment temperature or when the fungus is grown in the laboratory, while yeast is found in host tissues at temperature or grown in the laboratory 1. The most common infection from the fungus takes a lymphocutaneous form which affects the skin and the lymphatic system. It is a unique form of fungi that has the biological capacity for transmission. In addition, the lymphocutaneous route is the standard presentation of Sporotrichosis. Through this, Sporotrichosis appears as the implantation of conidia in a wound. It mainly appears on exposed skin on the arm and hand 2.


The main form of transmission is when people contact the fungus in the environment. The most mutual is the direct cutaneous skin infection that occurs when the fungal conidiospores go into the skin. The fungus may get through the skin via a small cut, scrape, or touching the contaminated plant matter. The hands and arm’s skin are the most affected regions. There are different types of Sporotrichosis based on the means of transmission and the body parts affected. They include cutaneous, pulmonary, and disseminated Sporotrichosis 2. Cutaneous Sporotrichosis occurs when individuals touch a contaminated plant matter with their hands or arms. Pulmonary Sporotrichosis takes place when one breathes in the fungal spores within the environment. It is a rare type of Sporotrichosis that occurs occasionally.

The disseminated Sporotrichosis takes place when the fungi infection spreads to different body parts such as the joints, bones, and the central nervous system 2. The disseminated Sporotrichosis affects individuals with various health problems taking medicines that affect their body’s immunity to combat germs and microorganisms that causes sickness. Sporotrichosis outbreaks have transpired among people who touch sphagnum moss and hay-like forestry workers, garden center workers, and tree nursery workers. Also, it might affect individuals who work or play on hay bales. The United States, Australia, Brazil, China, Guatemala, and South Africa experience the outbreak of the rose gardener disease 4. In addition, outdoor cats are becoming a common cause of the disease among humans through scratches and bites.

Mechanism of Pathogenicy

The virulence factors determine the ability of pathogens to infect and damage the host tissues. The virulence factors of Sporotrichosis are;

  1. Thermotolerance
  2. Melanin production


Thermotolerance is a virulence factor within the biomass of a self-healing composite. It can thrive at high temperatures, which makes it a unique virulence aspect 3. Sporothrix produces melanin compounds from yeast cells, which produce murine monoclonal antibodies. Melanin increases the fungal survival in the host and creates cell resistance to phagocytosis. The ergosterol peroxide is formed when the fungus attempt to evade reactive oxygen.


Dimorphism of fungus is another virulence factor that relates to the Sporothix. Dimorphism is the ability of fungi to parade dualism, which leads to a cellular differentiation progression related to pathogenicity. The thermotolerance virulence factor enables the fungus to grow and survive within high temperatures within hay, the human body, and wood.

Melanin production

Melanin enhances fungal survival by making the cells resistant to phagocytosis, facilitating their growth. The dimorphism of the fungus facilitates the growth of the microorganisms on the different parts they land on, which contributes to their spread to other parts of the body 3. As a result, the virulence factors of Sporothix contribute to the adverse effects of the disease on individuals and animals.

Symptoms and complications

The initial symptom of the Rose Gardener Disease is a small bump that appears on a finger, arm, and hand after 12 weeks of exposure 2. With time the bump becomes larger to resemble a sore that takes time to heal. Also, more bumps may appear near the affected region and may spread to other parts of the body. Pulmonary sporotrichosis symptoms consist of chest pain, shortness of breath, and fever. Furthermore, the Rose Gardener Disease symptoms are based on the type of body part that is affected. For example, when an infection on the joints causes joint pain, the central nervous system infections result in headaches, seizures, and difficult thinking 2. Pneumonia is a rare symptom of Sporotrichosis once an individual inhales Sporothrix spores in the environment.


The most common treatment for Sporotrichosis is itraconazole medication, which is taken orally for 3-6 months until the lesions disappear. Also, the saturated potassium iodide solution is used to treat Sporotrichosis which infects different parts of the body such as skin, bones, lungs, joints, and the central nervous system. The Sporotrichosis that affects the lungs incubates the lung tissues. Therefore, the best treatment for lungs infection is surgery that involves cutting away the infected tissue. Different body infections respond to different kinds of treatment. The skin infection responds to saturated potassium iodide solution, itraconazole, and terbinafine 1, 5. Bones and joint infections respond to itraconazole and surgery. Lung infections respond to surgery, itraconazole, amphotericin, and potassium iodide at varying levels of success, while brain infections respond to amphotericin plus 5-fluorocytosine.

Antifungal medications that can be used to treat sporotrichosis forms are fluconazole, amphotericin B, itraconazole and terbinafine. Itraconazole is the most commonly used microbial used in treating Sporotrichosis as it is effective, with low toxicity and goof tolerance which facilitates its use in long-term treatment. Amphotericin B is an antibiotic that binds to the fungal cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus, which causes the interruption of the cell membrane permeability 5. It is highly recommended during the initial stage of therapy. It is safe during pregnancy and is accompanied by side effects such as fever, headaches, vomiting, and malaise. Terbinafine is an alternative used when itraconazole is unresponsive—new antifungals that are being evaluated for the treatment of Sporotrichosis; posaconazole and ravuconazole. There is no vaccine available to prevent Sporotrichosis 5.

However, different ways may reduce the risk of getting Sporotrichosis. Some of these ways include wearing shielding clothing such as gloves and long sleeves when handling the different factors that contribute to the spread of fungi. Sporotrichosis is diagnosed through tests when a doctor identifies a swab. Microscopy and fungi culture is performed on the tissue of the infected parts to identify the presence of Sporothrix 4. Skin biopsy is also a relevant laboratory technique to reveal the infection as it involves the use of special stains. Serological tests are sometimes used. However, they are not as effective due to their limited sensitivity and specificity. Nonetheless, cases of sporotrichosis diagnosis are rare among nations. As a result, it is challenging to determine the number of cases due to the lack of national surveillance in the United States. In Brazil, more cases of Sporotrichosis are a result of contact with cats.


Cat bites and scratches contribute to the spread of fungus among individuals. Individuals exposed to agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and gardening are at an increased risk of getting infected with Sporotrichosis. Therefore, this group of people must take caution while conducting their daily operations to prevent the spread of the disease.


Bogin, M. H., & Saleh, O. M. A. (2020, December). A Red, Swollen Finger. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 95, No. 12, pp. 2799-2800). Elsevier Limited.

CDC C. Fungal diseases. Retrieved online at: http://www. cdc. gov/ncezid/dfwed/mycotics. 2018;2.

De Aquino Araújo A, Codeço C, Freitas DF, de Macedo PM, Pereira SA, Gremião ID, Coelho F. Transmission dynamics and control of Sporotrichosis in domestic felines. bioRxiv. 2021 Jan 1.

Sellera FP, Larsson CE. Sporothrix [spor’o-thriks] schenckii. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019 Sep 1;25(9):1631-2.

Victor N, Davidson RH, Miller CS, Boer BD. Rose Gardener’s Lung: Primary Cavitary Pulmonary Sporotrichosis with Co-Existing Lung Cancer: A Diagnostic, Staging, and Treatment Dilemma. InC54. ENDEMIC AND UNUSUAL FUNGAL INFECTION CASES 2020 May (pp. A5487-A5487). American Thoracic Society.

Debates around Dignity In and At Work

Dignity In and At Work


            Human dignity is defined as the inalienable and inherent human value that cannot be measured, taken away, or even destroyed. It is important to note that dignity can be dependent or conditional on any aspect or anything. It is as a result of being human, it can be used to refer to a group of people or individuals or groups as a species (Alzheimer,2018). Humans are emotional beings since time immemorial with dignity playing a big role in this aspect with even a greater role when it comes to the various aspects of work. Dignity can be viewed as the ability to create a sense of self-worth in a person as well as respect and also appreciating the respect other people accord one simultaneously. When a person has dignity within himself or herself, he or she feels that he is worth something; this in turn boosts an individual in very many aspects that are both emotionally or psychologically, and physically. Dignity is a terminology that has been used to raise concerns about different features of work.

The debate on dignity at work has been surrounded by a focus that is directed on bullying with harassment in organizations. The dignity at work campaign is one that is of a high profile and draws attention to the daily behaviors of bullying which take place at places of work that serve to oppress and intimidate the workers. The bullying usually comes from the higher-ranking officials in the hierarchy of an organization, by cultural consensus, or from personal mal-intent, from fellow peers (Bolton, 2007).

The center of attention in the majority of the debates that surround dignity in and at work is entirely on the elements of dignity at the places of work, these elements are self-esteem, meaningful work, and also autonomy. This is an aspect of the debate on the dignity of work that has recently been focused on harassment and bullying at places of work. The campaign on dignity at work focuses on the bullying tendencies which are aimed at intimidating and undermining employees. The United Kingdom came up with the dignity of work act of 2001 which outlines that each worker has the right to dignity at his or her workplace. This campaign on dignity centers its attention on the denial of dignity that is brought about by working relationships that are poor with managers that are overzealous, competitive colleagues (Wolf, 2017). This makes the campaign miss out on the fact dignity at work does not just dwell on matters related to bullying only.

Dignity is not just a personal experience with regards to individual norms, behaviors, expectations, values as well as efforts, dignity can be also be explained in terms of the expectations and also the expectations of a specific social system, economic system, and also political system. Therefore, dignity at work contains two dimensions that are the subjective dimension and the objective dimension. Dignity is an inherent human feature that depends on how a person has connected as well as his or her social ties (KingsCollge, 2015). Therefore, intimidation plus harassment can be considered as an attack on the dignity of a person, in the same at dignity can be experienced in a job that gives support and care to other people. however, there are numerous material conditions that deter people from getting their dignity in their labor; that are the status of the organization, the type of work they do, the social hierarchies, the opportunities that are available, the extrinsic value which is put on the labor; all these add up to the concept of dignity at the place of work (KingsCollge, 2015).

Dignity at the workplace

            There is a wide category of matters concerning the denial of dignity in the contemporary workplace, this is evident since people are continuously presented with accounts of jobs that are demoralizing, jobs that are destructive, and those that are very demanding. There is little information when it comes to contemporary accounts for poor quality work yet people have been aware of the adverse effects and the repercussions of paid work in the free market. Management formulas have been modeled in attempting to come up with emotions that are positive, cultures that are compassionate as well as spiritual workplaces, thereby reinvigorating employees that are de-motivated and making a big leap toward appreciating and recognizing the fact that people are the most important asset of any organization (Kevin Bales, 2007). several models have been formulated in this line that captures the most efficient perspectives of management structures into a whole system that serves as a role model for best practice management or BPM companies can follow so that they transform into workplaces that give the best results.

Promoting dignity at the places of work appreciates the rights of the employees; it ensures that the employees are treated with respect, fairness, and with dignity. It makes sure that they are offered the best conditions that are safe for work, this makes the environment free from vices such as sexual harassment and bullying which defy dignity. Dignity helps in the reduction of stress among the workers, this, in turn, reduces any health-related issues and also absenteeism in an organization. Bullying in the workplace and harassment lead to increased turnover among employees, a workplace that is unhealthy as well as increased conflicts among the workforce. It can also damage the brand of the employer and result in litigation procedures that will cost the employer a lot of money and give the employer negative publicity.

It is essential for each employer to be aware that they have an obligation of ensuring that they have a work environment that is safe for the employees and free from bullying and any form of harassment. The time that is spent on promoting dignity in an organization is normally better than the time that the time is spent on handling the complaints that are reported by the employees on bullying and harassment. In today’s society defending dignity has become a serious hurdle to jump over with the prevailing economic conditions viewing work through the cost of production. This in line with the global economy has to be as lower as possible in order to be competitive in the tough economic times (Juan, 2015).

Here, the employees are viewed as consumers due to their lower wages that require them to be given credit so that they can boost their consumption and in the end, they end up with big debts. This is the reason why the international labor organization makes it clear that labor should not be viewed as a commodity by organizations (Juan, 2015). Therefore, employers should ensure that workers’ rights are respected, there is no discrimination, there is gender parity, social protection, and better salaries and wages which all amount to human dignity.

Importance of dignity at Work

Dignity is an idea that is normally related to the primary aspect of what being a human is. Nonetheless, unlike other ideologies that focus on the subjective aspects only of the experience of the workplace, it also captures material aspects of work. Dignity also queries the inherent tensions which are connected to the selling of labor for a wage plus the potential of exploitation of such a relationship. This argument aims at showing that linking quality work of work with the flourishing of people along with dignity gives a path that is fruitful for assessing employees, their work, and the workplaces that are in support of a desirable image of a society that is fair, mutual and also constitutive. It also states that with an engagement that is real from the policymakers plus business, it can handle the needs of a global environment that is highly competitive (Kevin Bales, 2007).

The concept of dignity can be applied in organizations applied when referring to valuable features with regards to virtue in which people are said to have a dignity status. This is irrespective of their class, nationality, skin color, or race as well as other conventionally irrelevant features. Other features that are prominent to this notion are the valuable capacities of human beings for instance their reason, the ability of people to act in the spirit of solidarity, and the human conscience. The circumstances of dignity are concerned with the domain situations whereby the attainment of the norms of dignity is essential.

The necessary ingredients of dignity are the specific features of people that are hopeful and problematic in some contexts. In addition, they are inclusive of some difficulties as well as vulnerabilities that arise from the scarcity of materials, mental plus physical frailties as well as some features that are trouble. These troublesome features include the following features; greediness, laziness, and selfishness. On the other hand, there are those noble features like valuable human characteristics that form the foundation of dignity along with the prospects of deploying them in solving conflicts in the society and also deficiencies that are connected to dignitary respect and dignitary concern (Kevin Bales, 2007). The dignitary norms state how individuals should handle situations of dignity in different scenarios. The latter is, therefore, important for outlining the former because the two are feasible and desirable normatively.

Solidarity empowerment requests for persons to be ready to offer support to the growth and development of people. Solidarity Empowerment, the most proper response to the dignity of humans revolves around not only avoiding the negative roles or avoiding harm as well. However, the positive duties that are of concern, should be protected and facilitated (Elgar, 2011). The important capacities that form the basis of dignity cement the former as well as the latter. Dignity at work enables individuals to strengthen their defense when it comes to fighting for particular rights. Therefore, we observe how essential self-determination is for the dignity of people at work. It also enables us to see how important how one can choose a job freely rather than get forced into it. In the same way, we get to understand the essence of the worker’s unions and employee rights groups as well as other associations that fight for the interests of the workers.

Workers need to have the ability to take part in the active shaping of social progress that leads to better working conditions for them if they are going to be dynamic agents and not just employees that benefit from their employers. Human dignity being a status should be held equally by everyone, this will greatly help in criticizing discrimination. When the idea of dignity is appealed to, the depth, as well as our capacity of thinking, is increased on matters to do with workers’ rights at the places of work. Dignity enables us to understand labor rights, it also articulates the roles that are linked to labor rights and also how they are related to other rights that are important (NHSFoundationTrust, 2012). It is also important to note that human dignity is a political idea and a resonant moral idea. It is seen as one of the principal ideas that are behind the laws of labor. The other ideas state that the inequality that exists when negotiating for a balance between the employers and the employees should be compensated for by empowerment of solidarity. It is interesting to note that the approach of dignity is able to capture the content and also elaborate on the force that is behind the extra ideas.


Dignity at work encompasses how people are treated at their places with respect to the idea of solidarity empowerment with regard to the employees’ life. This concept requires the generation of social schemes that are feasible and reasonable that support each other as individuals are in pursuit of development, and as they exercise their valuable abilities to provide personalized and community in ways that are beneficial. The circle of dignity ranges from basic human rights to proper and decent working conditions to the best rights that will succeed in the best working practices which are free from exploiting the workers, alienation, and domination as well. Therefore, dignity exists for everyone, however, the issue is that is the human dignity is tarnished by society by discrimination of employees, abuse and harassment of employees, and many more vices. Nonetheless, in spite of all the negativity at surrounds human dignity, as humans, we should not forget the positive side of dignity. When employees and their employers are able to work together, we should not overlook the fact that there is fair treatment. This makes the employees dignity at work, thereby making contributions to the success of the organization, hence its productivity which transgresses to making the world a better place.


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Bolton, C. (2007). Dignity in and at work: why it matters. In: Dimensions. London: Dignity in and at work: why it matters. In: Dimensions.

Elgar, E. (2011). The Edward Elgar research handbook on. New York: Cheltenham .

Juan,S. (2015) Valuing the dignity of work | Human Development Reports. (2018). Hdr.undp.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018, from http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/valuing-dignity-work

Kevin Bales. (2007). Global Slavery. Westview: Westview Press.

KingsCollge. (2015). DIGNITY AT WORK: Statement of Commitment . London: KingsCollege.

NHSFoundationTrust. (2012). Dignity at work policy. NHC.

Wolf, A. (2017, October). State of the Debate: The Moral Meanings of Work. Retrieved from The American Prospect: http://prospect.org/article/state-debate-moral-meanings-work

Alzheimer Europe – Ethics – Definitions and approaches – Other ethical principles – Dignity. (2018). Alzheimer-europe.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018, from http://www.alzheimer-europe.org/Ethics/Definitions-and-approaches/Other-ethical-principles/Dignity