Description Paper 1 Read Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor (2016) Download Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor (2016) Then create a Word document with an APA style title page and answer the following questions about the article. You will also need an APA style reference page which includes the article itself and the dictionary source for the words you look up. The authors reviewed four different meta-analyses that have, largely, demonstrated that corporal punishment (i.e., spanking) is linked with negative outcomes. The authors indicated, “these meta-analyses provide evidence that physical punishment is associated with negative child outcomes…and that harsher methods of physical punishment are more strongly associated with negative child outcomes than ordinary spanking” (Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor, 2016, p. 2). Given that these meta-analyses span roughly 229 different studies, why do we still allow (and expect and approve of) spanking children? Do you agree with the statement that “parents who use harsh or abusive methods are fundamentally different from parents who use only spanking” (p. 3)? Explain. Summarize Table 1 in two sentences. Based on what you read in the article, would you argue that spanking is a “gateway” to abuse? What are the implications of this article? For each class in which I require article questions, I ask that you identify words in the article that you are unfamiliar with. The goal is to help build your vocabulary which is helpful in life and, especially, for the Graduate Record Examination (should you decide to take it in the future). Please complete this portion even if you feel you know all of the words in the article. It is good practice. Also, be sure to provide a reference for where you found the information. Identify 4 words that you are unfamiliar with and provide a definition for each. Be sure to provide in-text references and entries on the reference page for each. PAPER 2 Experiment #3: Instrumental (operant) conditioning using punishment only (due 7/24) You will complete four different experiments that utilize different learning strategies that will be discussed in this course. For each experiment you are to identify a behavior that you would like changed. The behavior can be your own or someone else’s in your environment (spouse, pet, parent). After the behavior is identified, you will develop a plan to change that behavior using the specific learning principle for that experiment. You will implement the training procedure with your individual. The paper that will be turned in for credit will consist of a) identification of the target behavior, b) plan to change said behavior, c) how the plan was implemented in full detail, and d) the results of your attempts to retrain the behavior. The type of learning principle per experiment is listed below: Experiments should be at least 2 pages long (not including a title page and a reference page, if applicable). This third project is on punishment conditioning. You will be administering a punishment for a behavior you want to see DECREASE. PAPER 3-Supplemental Notes Machiavelli’s The Prince 2021.pdf Your response to the question below should be at least 200 words long. According to Machiavelli, should the prince allow his subjects to be armed? What are the consequences of taking arms away from the people? Describe. Do you think the author would offer the same advice to the U.S. today? Do you think he is right? (See Chapter 20) Your response to the question below should be at least 200 words long. What does Machiavelli discuss regarding whether it is better to be feared than loved? Why does he advise against behaving in ways that might inspire hatred? Should American presidents follow his advice on this front? Your response to the question below should be at least 225 words long. “Therefore, it is not necessary for a prince to possess all of the above-mentioned qualities [merciful, faithful, humane, trustworthy, and religious], but it is very necessary for him to appear to possess them. . . One must understand this: a prince, and especially a new prince, cannot observe all those things for which men are considered good, because in order to maintain the state he must often act against his faith, against charity, against humanity and against religion. (Pg. 84).” Explain. What is Machiavelli suggesting? Rulers must appear to possess good qualities but be prepared to against them all as necessary? Is this an accurate description of how rulers behave? Do people accept this dynamic – that while good appearances will be maintained, rulers are often necessarily beasts? Your response to the question below should be at least 225 words long. Describe the four types of troops discussed by Machiavelli (native, auxiliary, mercenary and mixed) in chapters 12 and 13. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each. What advice would Machiavelli give to the Utopians in terms of their use of mercenaries? Does his advice regarding the use of troops make sense in our world today? PAPER 4 Write a brief essay (at least two pages, double spaced, 12-point font, and one-inch margins) responding to the prompt below. “Many writers have imagined republics and principalities that have never been seen nor known to exist in reality. For there is such a distance between how one lives and how one ought to live, that anyone who abandons what is done for what ought to be done achieves his downfall rather than his preservation.” (Pg. 78) Machiavelli endeavored to give realistic advice for the getting and keeping of power. What do you think of his approach to governing? Does he get human nature and ruling about right or is off the mark? Be sure to use at least three developed examples from The Prince and/or our contemporary world to support your opinion.
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