Description Week 4 Topic: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Social Learning Approaches This week we are looking at more learning- based models of personality theory. Review the theories of George Kelly (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 297-303), B. F. Skinner (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 321-332), and Albert Bandura (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, pp. 343-353). Discuss how these theories differ from previously discussed theories and what they bring to our understanding of personality. Let’s make personal application of these theories to your own personality. What insights have you gained about your own personality? Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E.. (2017). Theories of personality. Cengage Learning respond to 2 peers peers 1 ran Tompkinson External Experiences COLLAPSE Hello everyone! Hope you all are having a good final week so far and hope you all nail finals. This week we have read about theorists, and their outlook on behavior. Kelly theory is about the balance of being able to take a hypothesis about an event of experience and being able to weigh the different alternatives and adapt to them if the hypothesis is incorrect. It takes a different view than prior theorist, stating that if personality and behavior was determined in childhood one would not be able to adapt and change from event/ situation to the next, whereas other theorist used childhood as a base point of how someone’s personality is formed. “We evaluate and reinterpret our constructs as our environment changes. Constructs that worked for us at age 16 may be useless, or even harmful at age 40.” (Schultz&Schultz, 2017 p 301). Skinner felt like all behavior was external and all responses were from external sources, using for example the token method. Using rewards for good behavior and using negative reinforcement for unwanted behavior. This differs from other theorists because he did not believe that personality or genetics had anything to do with a person’s actions and that everything was based on external responses and stimuli. “People are primarily products of learning, shaped more by external variables than genetic factors.” (Schultz&Schultz, 2017, p 332) Bandura uses the model of behavior as a reason for someone’s action. Follows the monkey see monkey do analogy. If someone sees someone else do something and gets a positive outcome of it, it in turn makes that person want to do it to for the same reward, and same for negative situations. This differs from other theorist because it becomes more of an external source of why a person is doing what they are doing, and it can change their inhibitions to not do something if they see someone else doing it, rather than taking internal feelings and consciousness into consideration. Someone might not want to do something but see their friend do it and they could change their mind just based on that. “Disinhibition, refers to the weakening of inhibition or restraint through exposure to a model.” (Schultz&Schultz, 2017, p 345) Our understanding of personality and behavior changed with these theorists because they brought external factors in to account for the actions that we have and the events that happen. Kelly brought the understanding of cause and (different) effects of a person’s actions. Skinner brought the reward and “punishment” into social norms, showing a person does things for some type of reward for their action and negative reinforcements that change a person’s actions. Bandura brought following others’ behaviors and seeing their outcomes to impact the way we would act as a way that society can decide if something is a good choice or not. Within my own personality I have learned that I do gear my own personality through the reward characteristics that skinner has researched. I tend to do things if I see some sort of reward coming for me, but I also identify with the Bandura because I am very observant to others and if see someone else prevailing in a certain area of life, I will adopt the way they are doing something and try to do it like that so I also get the same outcomes as them. Also I feel like everyone wakes up in the morning putting Kelly’s theory in to action. I don’t feel like I know any adult that isn’t going to have some sort of idea about how their day will go and that weighs the options of their choices for the day. WC: 609 Schultz, D. P. & Schultz, S. E.. (2017). Theories of personality. Cengage Peers 2 Week 4 COLLAPSE Good Evening clssmates and Professor Fleming, In our final week we are learning about the learning-based model theories from George Kelly, B.F. Skinner and Albert Bandura. George Kelly proposed that we begin by forming a collection of personal constructs- cognition that we use to comprehend experiences. These notions are built on our observations and experiences. “Kelly said that we look at the world through transparent patterns that fit over the realities of which the world is composed”(Shultz and Shultz 2017, p.297). Operant conditioning is a learning method that B.F. Skinner’s approach to behavior. B.F. Skinner felt that the best process to understand behavior was to examine the reasons and implications of an action. This method was dubbed operant conditioning by him(Mcleod, 2018). Albert Bandura proposed that learning might occur through observation or model rather than only through direct responses(Shultz and Shultz, 2017). For example, seeing someone leading a violent, impulsive, and even sensation-seeking group is influenced by model disinhibition. In contrast, he argued that B.F Skinner’s operant conditioning, in which “trial and error behavior continues until the person happens upon the correct response, is an inefficient and potentially dangerous way to learn certain skills”(Shultz and Shultz, 2017, p. 343). Personality is an individual’s distinctive frame of mind, emotion, and doing. According to psychodynamic theories, personality is a direct association between the conscious and unconscious mind. These notions may be traced back to Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis. Whereas the ideas of Albert Bandura, B.F. Skinner and George Kelly are cognitive approaches to personality. Furthermore, within my personality, I am more prone to George Kelly’s theory in that I see how the world works. Yes, we all live in the same world, but how you experience it makes it different from someone else. What may be my reality is not someone else. For example, in this post, my views and direction might not match someone else point of view, but my perspective may have to deal with some of my experiences and my reality. WC(339) Reference Mcleod], [S. (1970, January 1). [Skinner – operant conditioning]. Study Guides for Psychology Students – Simply Psychology. Retrieved June 28, 2022, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2017). Theories of personality. Cengage Learning.
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