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research in psychology exam 5

Question 1 of 40

2.5 Points

In low-constraint studies:

 

 

[removed] 

A. analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software.

 

[removed] 

B. coding of data is generally necessary before analysis.

 

[removed] 

C. direct analysis can always be undertaken.

 

[removed] 

D. there is often no data to analyze.

 

Question 2 of 40

2.5 Points

A survey is most useful in gathering data on the:

 

 

[removed] 

A. knowledge base of participants.

 

[removed] 

B. attitudes of participants.

 

[removed] 

C. causes of participants’ behavior.

 

[removed] 

D. Both A and B

 

Question 3 of 40

2.5 Points

If an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be:

 

 

[removed] 

A. 0.50.

 

[removed] 

B. 0.25.

 

[removed] 

C. -0.50.

 

[removed] 

D. 0.00.

 

Question 4 of 40

2.5 Points

A strong relationship between two variables:

 

 

[removed] 

A. can imply causality in differential research.

 

[removed] 

B. cannot imply causality in differential research.

 

[removed] 

C. can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research.

 

[removed] 

D. is entirely meaningless.

 

Question 5 of 40

2.5 Points

Carrying out a survey by interviewing the first 100 people coming out of a movie theater would be an example of:

 

 

[removed] 

A. a status survey.

 

[removed] 

B. nonprobability sampling.

 

[removed] 

C. probability sampling.

 

[removed] 

D. simple random sampling.

 

Question 6 of 40

2.5 Points

Milfont (2009) found that desirable responding did not impact the self-reporting of environmental attitudes and behavior. What methodological issues might decrease the credibility of this claim?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Ecological behavior was self-reported instead of measuring actual behavior.

 

[removed] 

B. The sample used was made up only self-reported environmentalists.

 

[removed] 

C. Environmental attitudes were not related to environmental behavior in this study.

 

[removed] 

D. None of the above was true of the study.

 

Question 7 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Archival research

 

[removed] 

B. Ex post facto methodology

 

[removed] 

C. Experimental research

 

[removed] 

D. Naturalistic observation

 

Question 8 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the reason for this statement: “In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables”?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Correlation coefficients are calculated.

 

[removed] 

B. The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured.

 

[removed] 

C. Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them.

 

[removed] 

D. Contingent relationships are carefully measured.

 

Question 9 of 40

2.5 Points

The problem of participants’ contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by:

 

 

[removed] 

A. including fewer items.

 

[removed] 

B. using appropriate statistical controls.

 

[removed] 

C. making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in.

 

[removed] 

D. adding filler items.

 

Question 10 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Confidentiality

 

[removed] 

B. Researcher’s access to sensitive information

 

[removed] 

C. Informed consent

 

[removed] 

D. All of the above

 

Question 11 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Archival research is an example of:

 

 

[removed] 

A. single-subject designs.

 

[removed] 

B. an ANOVA.

 

[removed] 

C. low-constraint field research.

 

[removed] 

D. high-constraint laboratory research.

 

Question 12 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Rosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by:

 

 

[removed] 

A. asking patients to describe their experiences.

 

[removed] 

B. unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards.

 

[removed] 

C. asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms.

 

[removed] 

D. asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital.

 

Question 13 of 40

2.5 Points

A probability statement such as “given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high” is referred to as a(n):

 

 

[removed] 

A. event notation.

 

[removed] 

B. corollary.

 

[removed] 

C. certainty statement.

 

[removed] 

D. contingency.

 

Question 14 of 40

2.5 Points

One of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in:

 

 

[removed] 

A. causal inferences.

 

[removed] 

B. determining differences between groups.

 

[removed] 

C. enhancing internal validity.

 

[removed] 

D. the prediction of future events.

 

Question 15 of 40

2.5 Points

Low-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about:

 

 

[removed] 

A. techniques for manipulating variables.

 

[removed] 

B. causality.

 

[removed] 

C. relationships among variables.

 

[removed] 

D. making and testing predictions.

 

Question 16 of 40

2.5 Points

     

An area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is:

 

 

[removed] 

A. scientific validity.

 

[removed] 

B. generalizability of findings.

 

[removed] 

C. that lab experiments are unethical.

 

[removed] 

D. that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments.

 

Question 17 of 40

2.5 Points

Without experimentation:

 

 

[removed] 

A. no conclusions can be drawn.

 

[removed] 

B. strong causal conclusions can still be drawn.

 

[removed] 

C. drawing strong conclusions is difficult.

 

[removed] 

D. drawing strong conclusions is easy.

 

Question 18 of 40

2.5 Points

Asking participants in a survey a question such as, “What is your opinion of the way the economy is being handled by the president?” is an example of a(n) __________ question.

 

 

[removed] 

A. open-ended

 

[removed] 

B. multiple-choice

 

[removed] 

C. Likert scale

 

[removed] 

D. None of the above

 

Question 19 of 40

2.5 Points

In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use a(n):

 

 

[removed] 

A. Mann-Whitney U-Test.

 

[removed] 

B. analysis of variance (ANOVA).

 

[removed] 

C. chi-square test.

 

[removed] 

D. correlated t-test.

 

Question 20 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant’s attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is:

 

 

[removed] 

A. measurement reactivity.

 

[removed] 

B. participant observer bias.

 

[removed] 

C. unobtrusive measurement.

 

[removed] 

D. obtrusive participant measurement.

 

Question 21 of 40

2.5 Points

Testing effects are most pronounced in:

 

 

[removed] 

A. measures of skill.

 

[removed] 

B. elderly participants.

 

[removed] 

C. young participants.

 

[removed] 

D. nonverbal tests.

 

Question 22 of 40

2.5 Points

Which of the following characterizes experimental research?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Seeking the strength and direction of relationships

 

[removed] 

B. Hypothesis generating as the major aim

 

[removed] 

C. High control and causal inferences

 

[removed] 

D. The goal of observing contingent relationships

 

Question 23 of 40

2.5 Points

Multiple observers should be used in psychology when:

 

 

[removed] 

A. observations are not completely subjective.

 

[removed] 

B. there are questions about objectivity in making observations.

 

[removed] 

C. it is thought that one observer is sufficient.

 

[removed] 

D. the measure is unreliable.

 

Question 24 of 40

2.5 Points

Failure to rule out __________ variables results in threats to __________ validity.

 

 

[removed] 

A. confounding; internal

 

[removed] 

B. confounding; external

 

[removed] 

C. dependent; internal

 

[removed] 

D. dependent; external

 

Question 25 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Both are subjective measures.

 

[removed] 

B. Both are objective measures.

 

[removed] 

C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective.

 

[removed] 

D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective.

 

Question 26 of 40

2.5 Points

Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would:

 

 

[removed] 

A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes.

 

[removed] 

B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions.

 

[removed] 

C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the parti

Treatment versus Punishment: That is the Question!

When looking at the relationship between social justice and juvenile justice, there are two overarching concepts when addressing juvenile delinquency – treatment and punishment. These two concepts have driven a cycle of changes in the juvenile justice system over the years. Your task is to support your premise that your state or city should either implement a philosophy of treatment or punishment for juvenile offenders for a specific crime or criminal justice issue identified in your paper.

  • Explain the differences between the treatment and punishment concepts. Build the case for which one you believe has the stronger position based on your research and the crime or criminal justice issue you selected to study.
  • Review the juvenile crime statistics between three cities or states in three different parts of the country (e.g., Boston, Chicago, and Seattle) for a crime or criminal justice issue. Incorporate a graphic display to present your findings. Be sure to include at least three demographic items, such as gender, ethnicity, race, education, or socio-economic status, in your analysis. Ensure you standardize your data (i.e., 1:1000; 1:10,000; or 1: 100,000) and incorporate the scale in a key for each chart.
  • Identify the prevailing thought in the city or state: Is it treatment or punishment? Analyze the differences in the recidivism rates between the cities or states you have selected? Is recidivism the best indicator of success or failure or should we use a different indicator?
  • In Chapters 2 and 3 of the text, our author addresses biological, psychological and sociological theories to help explain juvenile delinquency. Evaluate which of these theories would best support your thesis.
  • Support which juvenile justice intervention strategy would be effective to counter the crime or criminal justice issue based on your research?
  • Conclude with a summary of which concept (treatment or punishment) best supports the over arching concept of social justice?

The paper must be ten to twelve pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least six scholarly resources (at least four of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) other than the textbook to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, located within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  • Must be ten to twelve double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least six scholarly resources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Posted in Uncategorized

research in psychology exam 5

Question 1 of 40

2.5 Points

In low-constraint studies:

 

 

[removed] 

A. analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software.

 

[removed] 

B. coding of data is generally necessary before analysis.

 

[removed] 

C. direct analysis can always be undertaken.

 

[removed] 

D. there is often no data to analyze.

 

Question 2 of 40

2.5 Points

A survey is most useful in gathering data on the:

 

 

[removed] 

A. knowledge base of participants.

 

[removed] 

B. attitudes of participants.

 

[removed] 

C. causes of participants’ behavior.

 

[removed] 

D. Both A and B

 

Question 3 of 40

2.5 Points

If an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be:

 

 

[removed] 

A. 0.50.

 

[removed] 

B. 0.25.

 

[removed] 

C. -0.50.

 

[removed] 

D. 0.00.

 

Question 4 of 40

2.5 Points

A strong relationship between two variables:

 

 

[removed] 

A. can imply causality in differential research.

 

[removed] 

B. cannot imply causality in differential research.

 

[removed] 

C. can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research.

 

[removed] 

D. is entirely meaningless.

 

Question 5 of 40

2.5 Points

Carrying out a survey by interviewing the first 100 people coming out of a movie theater would be an example of:

 

 

[removed] 

A. a status survey.

 

[removed] 

B. nonprobability sampling.

 

[removed] 

C. probability sampling.

 

[removed] 

D. simple random sampling.

 

Question 6 of 40

2.5 Points

Milfont (2009) found that desirable responding did not impact the self-reporting of environmental attitudes and behavior. What methodological issues might decrease the credibility of this claim?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Ecological behavior was self-reported instead of measuring actual behavior.

 

[removed] 

B. The sample used was made up only self-reported environmentalists.

 

[removed] 

C. Environmental attitudes were not related to environmental behavior in this study.

 

[removed] 

D. None of the above was true of the study.

 

Question 7 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Archival research

 

[removed] 

B. Ex post facto methodology

 

[removed] 

C. Experimental research

 

[removed] 

D. Naturalistic observation

 

Question 8 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the reason for this statement: “In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables”?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Correlation coefficients are calculated.

 

[removed] 

B. The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured.

 

[removed] 

C. Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them.

 

[removed] 

D. Contingent relationships are carefully measured.

 

Question 9 of 40

2.5 Points

The problem of participants’ contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by:

 

 

[removed] 

A. including fewer items.

 

[removed] 

B. using appropriate statistical controls.

 

[removed] 

C. making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in.

 

[removed] 

D. adding filler items.

 

Question 10 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Confidentiality

 

[removed] 

B. Researcher’s access to sensitive information

 

[removed] 

C. Informed consent

 

[removed] 

D. All of the above

 

Question 11 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Archival research is an example of:

 

 

[removed] 

A. single-subject designs.

 

[removed] 

B. an ANOVA.

 

[removed] 

C. low-constraint field research.

 

[removed] 

D. high-constraint laboratory research.

 

Question 12 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Rosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by:

 

 

[removed] 

A. asking patients to describe their experiences.

 

[removed] 

B. unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards.

 

[removed] 

C. asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms.

 

[removed] 

D. asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital.

 

Question 13 of 40

2.5 Points

A probability statement such as “given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high” is referred to as a(n):

 

 

[removed] 

A. event notation.

 

[removed] 

B. corollary.

 

[removed] 

C. certainty statement.

 

[removed] 

D. contingency.

 

Question 14 of 40

2.5 Points

One of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in:

 

 

[removed] 

A. causal inferences.

 

[removed] 

B. determining differences between groups.

 

[removed] 

C. enhancing internal validity.

 

[removed] 

D. the prediction of future events.

 

Question 15 of 40

2.5 Points

Low-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about:

 

 

[removed] 

A. techniques for manipulating variables.

 

[removed] 

B. causality.

 

[removed] 

C. relationships among variables.

 

[removed] 

D. making and testing predictions.

 

Question 16 of 40

2.5 Points

     

An area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is:

 

 

[removed] 

A. scientific validity.

 

[removed] 

B. generalizability of findings.

 

[removed] 

C. that lab experiments are unethical.

 

[removed] 

D. that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments.

 

Question 17 of 40

2.5 Points

Without experimentation:

 

 

[removed] 

A. no conclusions can be drawn.

 

[removed] 

B. strong causal conclusions can still be drawn.

 

[removed] 

C. drawing strong conclusions is difficult.

 

[removed] 

D. drawing strong conclusions is easy.

 

Question 18 of 40

2.5 Points

Asking participants in a survey a question such as, “What is your opinion of the way the economy is being handled by the president?” is an example of a(n) __________ question.

 

 

[removed] 

A. open-ended

 

[removed] 

B. multiple-choice

 

[removed] 

C. Likert scale

 

[removed] 

D. None of the above

 

Question 19 of 40

2.5 Points

In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use a(n):

 

 

[removed] 

A. Mann-Whitney U-Test.

 

[removed] 

B. analysis of variance (ANOVA).

 

[removed] 

C. chi-square test.

 

[removed] 

D. correlated t-test.

 

Question 20 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant’s attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is:

 

 

[removed] 

A. measurement reactivity.

 

[removed] 

B. participant observer bias.

 

[removed] 

C. unobtrusive measurement.

 

[removed] 

D. obtrusive participant measurement.

 

Question 21 of 40

2.5 Points

Testing effects are most pronounced in:

 

 

[removed] 

A. measures of skill.

 

[removed] 

B. elderly participants.

 

[removed] 

C. young participants.

 

[removed] 

D. nonverbal tests.

 

Question 22 of 40

2.5 Points

Which of the following characterizes experimental research?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Seeking the strength and direction of relationships

 

[removed] 

B. Hypothesis generating as the major aim

 

[removed] 

C. High control and causal inferences

 

[removed] 

D. The goal of observing contingent relationships

 

Question 23 of 40

2.5 Points

Multiple observers should be used in psychology when:

 

 

[removed] 

A. observations are not completely subjective.

 

[removed] 

B. there are questions about objectivity in making observations.

 

[removed] 

C. it is thought that one observer is sufficient.

 

[removed] 

D. the measure is unreliable.

 

Question 24 of 40

2.5 Points

Failure to rule out __________ variables results in threats to __________ validity.

 

 

[removed] 

A. confounding; internal

 

[removed] 

B. confounding; external

 

[removed] 

C. dependent; internal

 

[removed] 

D. dependent; external

 

Question 25 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true?

 

 

[removed] 

A. Both are subjective measures.

 

[removed] 

B. Both are objective measures.

 

[removed] 

C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective.

 

[removed] 

D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective.

 

Question 26 of 40

2.5 Points

Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would:

 

 

[removed] 

A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes.

 

[removed] 

B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions.

 

[removed] 

C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the parti

Social Work Group Treatment Sessions

Planning a Group

When a client is dealing with several problems at one time, it can be difficult to determine which type of treatment group would be most beneficial. Some types of treatment groups may overlap in addressing certain problems or issues. The literature is helpful in assisting the clinical social worker in determining the type, purpose, and goals of the treatment group.

For this Assignment, review the case history and video session.

In a 3- to 4-page paper, describe a treatment group that would help Helen Petrakis in one of the following areas: (a) caregiving, (b) sandwich generation, (c) serving as a family member of an individual with addiction.

  • Review and briefly summarize the literature about the social issue that is the focus of your group (caregiving, sandwich generation, or addictions).
  • Write a plan that includes the following elements:
    • Type of treatment group
    • Purpose of the group
    • Membership
    • Method to recruit
    • Composition
    • Size
    • Open/closed
    • Monitoring

Posted in Uncategorized

Treatment versus Punishment – That is the Question!

Treatment versus Punishment – That is the Question!

When looking at the relationship between social justice and juvenile justice, there are two over arching concepts when addressing juvenile delinquency – treatment and punishment. These two concepts have driven a cycle of changes in the juvenile justice system over the years. Your task is to support your premise that your state or city should either implement a philosophy of treatment or punishment for juvenile offenders for a specific crime or criminal justice issue identified in your paper.

  1. Explain the differences between the treatment and punishment concepts. Build the case for which one you believe has the stronger position based on your research and the crime or criminal justice issue you selected to study.
  2. Review the juvenile crime statistics between three cities or states in three different parts of the country (e.g., Boston, Chicago, and Seattle) for a crime or criminal justice issue. Incorporate a graphic display to present your findings. Be sure to include at least three demographic items, such as gender, ethnicity, race, education, or socio-economic status, in your analysis. Ensure you standardize your data (i.e., 1:1000; 1:10,000; or 1: 100,000) and incorporate the scale in a key for each chart.
  3. Identify the prevailing thought in the city or state: Is it treatment or punishment? Analyze the differences in the recidivism rates between the cities or states you have selected? Is recidivism the best indicator of success or failure or should we use a different indicator?
  4. In chapters 2 and 3 of the text, our author addresses biological, psychological and sociological theories to help explain juvenile delinquency. Evaluate which of these theories would best support your thesis.
  5. Support which juvenile justice intervention strategy would be effective to counter the crime or criminal justice issue based on your research?
  6. Conclude with a summary of which concept (treatment or punishment) best supports the over arching concept of social justice?

The paper must be ten to twelve pages in length and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least six scholarly resources (at least four of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) other than the textbook to support your claims. Cite your sources within the text of your paper and on the reference page. For information regarding APA, including samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center.

Writing the Final Paper
The Final Paper:

  1. Must be ten to twelve double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least six scholarly resources, including a minimum of four from the Ashford University Library.
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Posted in Uncategorized

You are the safety manager for a 50,000 square foot warehouse operation where paints and painting supplies are stored. What are your top ten recommendations for ensuring adequate fire prevention and protection in this facility? Provide a brief justificati

You are the safety manager for a 50,000 square foot warehouse operation where paints and painting supplies are stored. What are your top ten recommendations for ensuring adequate fire prevention and protection in this facility? Provide a brief justification for each of your recommendations. 

Your response should be at least 250 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Posted in Uncategorized

bullying

Bullying is a prevalent issue during middle childhood. Watch The Power of One – School Video Sample. Choose one of the situations presented: Diego, Timmy, or Kendra  Briefly describe the situation. Offer suggestions that can be put into place by the teacher, school, and the parents (at least one for each). Use the following sources to support your response:

  1. Bullies: What is Bullying
  2. Stopbullying

You must address what should be said to the child who is targeted and to the child exhibiting the bullying behavior. You must include what should not be said as well. Include at least one suggestion to be used in the classroom and one suggestion that can be reinforced at home.  

Guided Response:

Your initial post should be at least 250 words in length. Respond to at least two of your classmates by Day 7, and comment on whether or not you think the suggestions are interchangeable. Could the lesson for school be taught at home and vice versa? Why do you think this lesson would or would not work in the alternate setting?      

Posted in Uncategorized

research in psychology exam 5

Question 1 of 40

2.5 Points

In low-constraint studies:

 

 

[removed] 

A. analysis is only possible if we use complex statistical software.

 

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B. coding of data is generally necessary before analysis.

 

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C. direct analysis can always be undertaken.

 

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D. there is often no data to analyze.

 

Question 2 of 40

2.5 Points

A survey is most useful in gathering data on the:

 

 

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A. knowledge base of participants.

 

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B. attitudes of participants.

 

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C. causes of participants’ behavior.

 

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D. Both A and B

 

Question 3 of 40

2.5 Points

If an obtained correlation was 0.50, the coefficient of determination would be:

 

 

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A. 0.50.

 

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B. 0.25.

 

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C. -0.50.

 

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D. 0.00.

 

Question 4 of 40

2.5 Points

A strong relationship between two variables:

 

 

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A. can imply causality in differential research.

 

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B. cannot imply causality in differential research.

 

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C. can imply causality in differential research but not in correlational research.

 

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D. is entirely meaningless.

 

Question 5 of 40

2.5 Points

Carrying out a survey by interviewing the first 100 people coming out of a movie theater would be an example of:

 

 

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A. a status survey.

 

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B. nonprobability sampling.

 

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C. probability sampling.

 

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D. simple random sampling.

 

Question 6 of 40

2.5 Points

Milfont (2009) found that desirable responding did not impact the self-reporting of environmental attitudes and behavior. What methodological issues might decrease the credibility of this claim?

 

 

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A. Ecological behavior was self-reported instead of measuring actual behavior.

 

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B. The sample used was made up only self-reported environmentalists.

 

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C. Environmental attitudes were not related to environmental behavior in this study.

 

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D. None of the above was true of the study.

 

Question 7 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study bonding behavior in chimpanzees. Unfortunately, the researcher has no real knowledge about chimpanzees, and there is no information on bonding in the literature. Which of the following would be the most appropriate way to begin to study the topic?

 

 

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A. Archival research

 

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B. Ex post facto methodology

 

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C. Experimental research

 

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D. Naturalistic observation

 

Question 8 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the reason for this statement: “In differential research, we are actually studying relationships between variables”?

 

 

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A. Correlation coefficients are calculated.

 

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B. The strength of the relationship between dependent variables is measured.

 

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C. Differential research involves only measuring variables and not manipulating them.

 

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D. Contingent relationships are carefully measured.

 

Question 9 of 40

2.5 Points

The problem of participants’ contrived consistency on self-report measures can be reduced by:

 

 

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A. including fewer items.

 

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B. using appropriate statistical controls.

 

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C. making the participant aware of what the researcher is interested in.

 

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D. adding filler items.

 

Question 10 of 40

2.5 Points

What is the primary ethical concern in low-constraint research?

 

 

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A. Confidentiality

 

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B. Researcher’s access to sensitive information

 

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C. Informed consent

 

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D. All of the above

 

Question 11 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Archival research is an example of:

 

 

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A. single-subject designs.

 

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B. an ANOVA.

 

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C. low-constraint field research.

 

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D. high-constraint laboratory research.

 

Question 12 of 40

2.5 Points

     

Rosenhan investigated the experiences of psychiatric patients in mental hospitals by:

 

 

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A. asking patients to describe their experiences.

 

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B. unobtrusively observing the behavior of patients on psychiatric hospital wards.

 

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C. asking normal people to admit themselves to mental hospitals by feigning symptoms.

 

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D. asking psychiatrists to describe the environment of a typical mental hospital.

 

Question 13 of 40

2.5 Points

A probability statement such as “given that event X occurred, then the probability of event Y occurring is high” is referred to as a(n):

 

 

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A. event notation.

 

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B. corollary.

 

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C. certainty statement.

 

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D. contingency.

 

Question 14 of 40

2.5 Points

One of the most important uses of a correlation is its potential use in:

 

 

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A. causal inferences.

 

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B. determining differences between groups.

 

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C. enhancing internal validity.

 

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D. the prediction of future events.

 

Question 15 of 40

2.5 Points

Low-constraint research enables us to obtain useful information about:

 

 

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A. techniques for manipulating variables.

 

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B. causality.

 

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C. relationships among variables.

 

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D. making and testing predictions.

 

Question 16 of 40

2.5 Points

     

An area of concern that is more problematic in laboratory research than in low-constraint field work in psychology is:

 

 

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A. scientific validity.

 

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B. generalizability of findings.

 

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C. that lab experiments are unethical.

 

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D. that most human behavior can only be evaluated in naturalistic environments.

 

Question 17 of 40

2.5 Points

Without experimentation:

 

 

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A. no conclusions can be drawn.

 

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B. strong causal conclusions can still be drawn.

 

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C. drawing strong conclusions is difficult.

 

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D. drawing strong conclusions is easy.

 

Question 18 of 40

2.5 Points

Asking participants in a survey a question such as, “What is your opinion of the way the economy is being handled by the president?” is an example of a(n) __________ question.

 

 

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A. open-ended

 

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B. multiple-choice

 

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C. Likert scale

 

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D. None of the above

 

Question 19 of 40

2.5 Points

In analyzing data in differential research, if we have score data and more than two groups, we would typically use a(n):

 

 

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A. Mann-Whitney U-Test.

 

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B. analysis of variance (ANOVA).

 

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C. chi-square test.

 

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D. correlated t-test.

 

Question 20 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to study the effects of attention on ability to perform a task. The participant’s attention is recorded by a research assistant that the participant knows is watching. A problem with this design is:

 

 

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A. measurement reactivity.

 

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B. participant observer bias.

 

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C. unobtrusive measurement.

 

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D. obtrusive participant measurement.

 

Question 21 of 40

2.5 Points

Testing effects are most pronounced in:

 

 

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A. measures of skill.

 

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B. elderly participants.

 

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C. young participants.

 

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D. nonverbal tests.

 

Question 22 of 40

2.5 Points

Which of the following characterizes experimental research?

 

 

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A. Seeking the strength and direction of relationships

 

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B. Hypothesis generating as the major aim

 

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C. High control and causal inferences

 

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D. The goal of observing contingent relationships

 

Question 23 of 40

2.5 Points

Multiple observers should be used in psychology when:

 

 

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A. observations are not completely subjective.

 

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B. there are questions about objectivity in making observations.

 

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C. it is thought that one observer is sufficient.

 

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D. the measure is unreliable.

 

Question 24 of 40

2.5 Points

Failure to rule out __________ variables results in threats to __________ validity.

 

 

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A. confounding; internal

 

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B. confounding; external

 

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C. dependent; internal

 

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D. dependent; external

 

Question 25 of 40

2.5 Points

A researcher wants to do a study of pretest anxiety. He devises two possible ways of measuring pretest anxiety: (1) attaching electrodes to the palm and measuring the amount of sweat produced; (2) having observers rate participants on how anxious they look. Which of the following is true?

 

 

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A. Both are subjective measures.

 

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B. Both are objective measures.

 

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C. #1 is objective; #2 is subjective.

 

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D. #1 is subjective; #2 is objective.

 

Question 26 of 40

2.5 Points

Matched random assignment is used in situations in which random assignment would:

 

 

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A. increase chances of unequal sample sizes.

 

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B. cause possible confounding because the groups may be unequal on key dimensions.

 

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C. not be possible because the researcher has too much prior knowledge about the parti