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Validity is a critical element in quantitative research, and it determines how meaningful the results turn out. Validity refers to the accurateness of the methods and tools used to measure the research variables (Polit & Beck, 2017). The tools need to measure what the research intends to measure to ensure the validity of the study. The characteristics and qualities needed in research tools are reflected within the six types of validity.
First, construct validity is concerned with the tools’ ability to measure the intended study elements. This forms the basis for establishing overall study validity. The second type is content validity, which assesses whether the tools fully represent the elements to be measured (Polit & Beck, 2017). Research tools must cover all the relevant aspects intended to be measured exhaustively.
The third one is face validity, which tests whether the design of the tools used is suitable for the aims of the research. In other words, the questions must capture the intended aim. The fourth characteristic is presented within criterion validity. The correlation between elements in the tools used in a study makes criterion validity (Patten, & Newhart, 2017). The different questions used should point out the aspect being tested.
Next, we have discriminant validity, which for it to be established, study measures that are not supposed to be related should remain unrelated in all respects. Correlations between dissimilar measure aspects should be as low as possible (Polit & Beck, 2017). Lastly, there is the convergent validity where measures that are intended to relate should reflect the same. The test here is on the degree of convergence. According to Mohaj (2017), theoretically similar study measures should have similarities.
Mohajan, H. K. (2017). Two criteria for good measurements in research: Validity and reliability. Annals of Spiru Haret University. Economic Series, 17(4), 59-82.
Patten, M. L., & Newhart, M. (2017). Understanding research methods: An overview of the essentials. Taylor & Francis.
Polit, D. & Beck, C. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health. ISBN-13: 978-1496300232