Using the data in the filenamed Ch. 11 Data Set 2, test the research hypothesis at the .05 level ofsignificance that boys raise their hands in class more often than girls. Dothis practice problem by hand using a calculator. What is your conclusionregarding the research hypothesis? Remember to first decide whether this is aone- or two-tailed test.Using the same data set (Ch.11 Data Set 2), test the research hypothesis at the .01 level of significancethat there is a difference between boys and girls in the number of times theyraise their hands in class. Do this practice problem by hand using acalculator. What is your conclusion regarding the research hypothesis? You usedthe same data for this problem as for Question 1, but you have a different hypothesis(one is directional and the other is nondirectional). How do the results differand why?Practice the followingproblems by hand just to see if you can get the numbers right. Using thefollowing information, calculate the ttest statistic.14X1 = 62 X2 = 60 n1 = 10 n2 = 10 s12= 6 s22= 10’>14X1 = 158 X2 = 157.4 n1 = 22 n2 = 26 s12= 4.23 s22= 6.73’>14X1 = 200 X2 = 198 n1 = 17 n2 = 17 s12= 6 s22= 5.5’>Using the results you gotfrom Question 3 and a level of significance at .05, what are the two-tailedcritical values associated with each? Would the null hypothesis be rejected?Using the data in the filenamed Ch. 11 Data Set 3, test the null hypothesis that urban and ruralresidents both have the same attitude toward gun control. Use IBM® SPSS®software to complete the analysis for this problem.A public health researchertested the hypothesis that providing new car buyers with child safety seatswill also act as an incentive for parents to take other measures to protecttheir children (such as driving more safely, child-proofing the home, and so on).Dr. L counted all the occurrences of safe behaviors in the cars and homes ofthe parents who accepted the seats versus those who did not. The findings: asignificant difference at the .013 level. Another researcher did exactly thesame study; everything was the same—same type of sample, same outcome measures,same car seats, and so on. Dr. R’s results were marginally significant (recall Ch.9) at the .051 level. Which result do you trust more and why?In the following examples,indicate whether you would perform a ttest of independent means or dependent means.Two groups were exposed todifferent treatment levels for ankle sprains. Which treatment was mosteffective?A researcher in nursingwanted to know if the recovery of patients was quicker when some received additionalin-home care whereas when others received the standard amount.A group of adolescent boyswas offered interpersonal skills counseling and then tested in September andMay to see if there was any impact on family harmony.One group of adult men wasgiven instructions in reducing their high blood pressure whereas another wasnot given any instructions.One group of men wasprovided access to an exercise program and tested two times over a 6-monthperiod for heart health.For Ch. 12 Data Set 3,compute the t value and write aconclusion on whether there is a difference in satisfaction level in a group offamilies’ use of service centers following a social service intervention on ascale from 1 to 15. Do this exercise using IBM® SPSS® software,and report the exact probability of the outcome.Do this exercise by hand. Afamous brand-name manufacturer wants to know whether people prefer Nibbles orWribbles. They sample each type of cracker and indicate their like or dislikeon a scale from 1 to 10. Which do they like the most?Nibbles ratingWribbles rating94371668577788361073859289763265786156536Using the following table,provide three examples of a simple one-way ANOVA, two examples of a two-factorANOVA, and one example of a three-factor ANOVA. Complete the table for themissing examples. Identify the grouping and the test variable.DesignGrouping variable(s)Test variableSimple ANOVAFour levels of hours oftraining—2, 4, 6, and 8 hoursTyping accuracyEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereTwo-factor ANOVATwo levels of trainingand gender (two-way design)Typing accuracyEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereThree-factor ANOVATwo levels of training,two of gender, and three of incomeVoting attitudesEnter Your Example HereEnter Your Example HereUsing the data in Ch. 13Data Set 2 and the IBM® SPSS® software, compute the F ratio for a comparison between thethree levels representing the average amount of time that swimmers practiceweekly (< 15, 15–25, and > 25 hours) with the outcome variable beingtheir time for the 100-yard freestyle. Does practice time make a difference? Usethe Options feature to obtain the means for the groups.When would you use afactorial ANOVA rather than a simple ANOVA to test the significance of thedifference between the averages of two or more groups?Create a drawing or planfor a 2 × 3 experimental design that would lend itself to a factorial ANOVA. Identifythe independent and dependent variables. From Salkind (2011). Copyright © 2012 SAGE. All RightsReserved. Adapted with permission.Part BSome questions in Part B requirethat you access data from UsingSPSS for Windows and Macintosh. This data is available on the student website under theStudent Text Resources link.The data for Exercise 14 is in thedata file named Lesson 22 ExerciseFile 1. John is interested indetermining if a new teaching method, the involvement technique, is effectivein teaching algebra to first graders. John randomly samples six first gradersfrom all first graders within the Lawrence City School System and individuallyteaches them algebra with the new method. Next, the pupils complete aneight-item algebra test. Each item describes a problem and presents fourpossible answers to the problem. The scores on each item are 1 or 0, where 1indicates a correct response and 0 indicates a wrong response. The IBM® SPSS®data file contains six cases, each with eight item scores for the algebra test.Conduct a one-sample t test on the total scores. On theoutput, identify the following:Mean algebra scoreT test valueP valueThe data for Exercise 15 is in thedata file named Lesson 25 Exercise File 1. Marvin is interested inwhether blonds, brunets, and redheads differ with respect to theirextrovertedness. He randomly samples 18 men from his local college campus: sixblonds, six brunets, and six redheads. He then administers a measure of socialextroversion to each individual.Conduct a one-wayANOVA to investigate the relationship between hair color and socialextroversion. Conduct appropriate post hoc tests. On the output, identify thefollowing:F ratio for the group effectSums of squares for thehair color effectMean for redheadsP value for the hair color effectFrom Green & Salkind (2011). Copyright ©2012 Pearson Education. All Rights Reserved. Adapted with permission.Part CComplete the questions below. Be specific and provideexamples when relevant. Cite any sources consistent with APA guidelines.QuestionAnswerWhat is meant by independent samples? Provide a researchexample of two independent samples.When is it appropriate to use a t test for dependent samples? What is the key piece ofinformation you must know in order to decide?When is it appropriate to use an ANOVA? What is the keypiece of information you must know in order to decide?Why would you want to do an ANOVA when you have more thantwo groups, rather than just comparing each pair of means with a t test?